Non-Breathable Padded Crib Bumper
Breathable Mesh Crib Bumper
The Breathable Mesh Crib Bumper was invented to prevent Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) caused by the re-breathing of CO2 and to keep a baby from getting lodged between the crib's vertical balusters and rails. When a baby sleeps in a crib with a standard crib bumper installed, the surrounding ambient oxygen (O2) is displaced by the exhaled carbon dioxide (CO2), which builds up and stays in a non-ventilated crib cavity. No one knows exactly how Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) happens, but the re-breathing of exhaled carbon dioxide has an anesthetic effect, creating a decrease in heart rate and breathing. The technical term for excessive carbon dioxide in the blood is called hypercarbia, which may lead to asphyxia, where the normal breathing reflex stops. As a baby sleeps, the heavier than air exhaled carbon dioxide sits on the bottom of the sealed crib chamber or bassinet, allowing the continual re-breathing of the exhaled carbon dioxide.
Human extremities can be deprived of blood flow for more than 30 minutes without damage. Breathing is triggered by rising carbon dioxide levels in the blood rather than diminishing oxygen levels. The central nervous system, specifically those parts involved in consciousness, will not continue to function for more than a few seconds without oxygen. The disruption of cell metabolism and the accumulation of toxic by-products in the body results in patho-physiological consequences such as tissue necrosis, loss of consciousness and death. Carbon dioxide dissolved in blood forms carbonic acid, which acidifies the blood. Too much carbon dioxide in the body causes acidosis, which can kill. Hypoxia affects the tissues and organs most sensitive to insufficient levels of oxygen. Cerebral hypoxia occurs when the brain, the body's most sensitive organ, does not get enough oxygen.
Back in 1925, Dr. Otto Warburg, a Nobel Prize winning scientist, discovered that all cancer cells and all malignant cancer tumors always lack oxygen and use sugars (glucose) to grow anaerobically. A reduction in or a lack of oxygen in a cell damages DNA and creates abnormal cells. If a cell's oxygen levels are reduced around 33%, the cell may stop aerobic synthesis and become an anaerobic cancer cell. One way the body's cells are deprived of oxygen is glucose overloading from the digesting of carbohydrates. Most people after eating a large carbohydrate meal get sleepy because blood is redirected to the digestive system and the body's cells are deprived of oxygen through glucose overloading. Carbohydrates are broken down in the digestion process at different rates. Simple carbohydrates are broken down almost immediately into glucose and are absorbed very fast into your system. Complex carbohydrates take much longer to break down and are absorbed into your system over a longer period of time. White sugar, white flour and white rice are simple carbohydrates which should be avoided by mothers when breast feeding. Breast milk fed to a baby, containing elevated levels of glucose, may reduce a baby's oxygen levels possibly resulting in Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. There is evidence that breastfeeding may help to decrease the incidence of SIDS.
Periodic pauses in breathing is a normal occurrence and is called apnea, the absence of breathing. It has been proven that increased levels of ambient oxygen reduces the occurrences of apnea in infants. This may be the reason why newborns were placed in oxygen tents after birth more than 50 years ago, but the side effects were poor eye development and sometimes the occurrence blindness.
The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that a baby be positioned on their back (supine position) when sleeping to reduce the possibility of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) occurring. It is recommended that you should not let a baby lie on their back to sleep when they are experiencing respiratory distress or have been just fed, in case of excessive regurgitation after feeding. It is also believed that excessive bedding and clothing produce hyperthermia (the overheating of an infant).
Interesting cases related to Carbon Dioxide Asphyxiation have occurred in the past:
Around 11:30 p.m. on August 15, 1984, a carbon dioxide eruption occurred from the bottom of Lake Monoun, in West Africa, killing 37 people living around Lake Monoun.
At 9:30 p.m. on August 12, 1986, a cloudy mixture of carbon dioxide and water droplets rose violently from the deep waters of the tropical crater Lake Nyos, in Cameroon, west Africa. Lake Nyos is 208 meters deep, 1,400 meters long, 900 meters wide, and covers an area of about 1.5 square kilometers. The heavier than air carbon dioxide cloud was about 50 meters thick. It quickly enveloped houses within the crater that were 120 meters above the shoreline of the lake. The Lake Nyos lethal gas cloud of carbon dioxide was estimated to be filled with around 1,940,000 tons of carbon dioxide. The excess carbon dioxide cloud escaped over a low spillway cut in the northern rim of the maar crater, and flowed down the slopes into the valleys below at a rate of 20 to 50 km per hour towards the villages of Nyos, Kam, Cha, and Subum. The deadly carbon dioxide cloud traveled over a distance of 23 km, bringing sudden death to all life in the vicinity. 1,746 people, thousands of cattle, birds, animals and insects died of carbon dioxide induced asphyxiation. Children are often the first victims because they breathe air nearest the earth. A small percentage of victims awoke from carbon dioxide induced comas one or two days after the event, but most died. It was estimated that a liter of water, in the lower part of the lake, contained between 1 to 5 liters of dissolved carbon dioxide (CO2).
The US Federal Mine Safety and Health Act of 1977 established ventilation standards in which mines should be ventilated by a current of air containing not less than 19.5 volume per centum of oxygen and not more than 0.5 volume per centum of carbon dioxide (CO2).
One of the first US patents on a crib bumper was filed on April 22, 1959 by Norman Rosen entitled: PROTECTIVE BUMPER DEVICE. Three US patents (6,055,690 / 6,438,775 / 6,684,437) on crib improvements to help prevent Sudden Infant Death Syndrome caused by the re-breathing of CO2 were filed by Koenig entitled: SLEEPING PAD BEDDINGS AND BUMPERS TO IMPROVE RESPIRATORY EFFICIENCY AND ENVIRONMENTAL TEMPERATURE OF AN INFANT AND REDUCE THE RISKS OF SUDDEN INFANT DEATH SYNDROME (SIDS) AND ASPHYXIATION, but are to expensive and require expensive modification to a standard crib.U.S. Patents on Crib Bumpers:
The Breathable Mesh Crib Bumper is installed in a crib by suspending it from and securing it to the four corner posts. All four mesh panels are stretched tightly between the four corner posts, producing a vertical barrier between the inside of the crib and vertical balusters.